GARUDA SIMBOL PESONA INDONESIA


Wonderful Indonesia

Indonesia memiliki julukan dari para wisatawan yaitu “Wonderful Indonesia” karena Indonesia dengan wilayahnya yang luas memiliki penuh pesona tersendiri mulai dari keindahan alamnya, keragaman penduduk dan bahasanya hingga pesona seni budaya tradisi lokal yang memiliki keunikan dan cagar budaya yang tentu saja sangat menarik untuk dikunjungi dan menjelajah wisata nusantara. Wonderful Indonesia merupakan branding pariwisata Indonesia yang mengusung tema Eco, Culture and MICE (Meeting, Incentive (Travel), Conventions, Exhibitions) yang sebelumnya pariwisata Indonesia memiliki nation branding yaitu “Visit Indonesia”. Tema yang mengusung Eco, Culture, and MICE ini memiliki makna yaitu

  • Eco merupakan perwujudan bentuk kepedulian pariwisata Indonesia terhadap lingkungan
  • Culture (Kebudayaan) merupakan harta dan kekuatan Indonesia yang mempunyai kekayaan seni budaya beraneka ragam dari Sabang sampai Merauke
  • MICE adalah rangkaian acara dalam rangka Indonesia sebagai tuan rumah KTT ASEAN di tahun 2011, sehingga akan banyak pertemuan dan konvensi (MICE) yang diadakan di Indonesia, terdapat 600 event MICE yang diselenggarakan diberbagai daerah di tanah air.

Wonderful Indonesia menjadi janji pariwisata Indonesia kepada dunia. Istilah “Wonderful” mengandung makna bahwa Indonesia kaya dengan keindahan karya anak manusia maupun alamnya. Pesona Nusantara itu mampu mengusik kalbu dan menjanjikan pengalaman baru yang menyenangkan. Branding “Wonderful Indonesia” diharapkan menjadi identitas bangsa. Istilah Wonderful Indonesia biasanya dirangkai dengan Jateng Gayeng by Wonderful Indonesia, Enjoy Jakarta by Wonderful Indonesia.

Branding Wonderful Indonesia

Branding “Wonderful Indonesia” memiliki tujuan untuk mengefektifkan dan berintegrasi agar tidak terlalu banyak branding yang diciptakan oleh banyak tempat wisata maupun daerah. Wonderful Indonesia menjadi payung besar dalam dunia pariwisata Indonesia. Brand “Wonderful Indonesia” juga bertujuan sebagai country branding yang mempresentasikan daya tarik, keindahan alam, keanekaragaman budaya, dan keramahtamahan masyarakat Indonesia maupun fasilitas pariwisata menarik lainnya yang dikembangkan warga maupun masyarakat Indonesia itu sendiri.

Logo Wonderful Indonesia memiliki makna yang dalam. Bentuk logo mengambil konsep Garuda Pancasila sebagai dasar negara. Lima sila digambarkan dengan 5 garis warna yang berbeda dan merupakan symbol diversity Indonesia yang penuh dengan keanekaragaman. Logo diolah menjadi bentuk dan warna yang dinamis sebagai perwujudan dari dinamika Indonesia sebagai negara berkembang. Jenis huruf dan logo diambil dari elemen otentik Indonesia yang disempurnakan dengan sentuhan modern.

Burung untuk logo Wonderful Indonesia suka berkelompok. Ini melambangkan hidup damai antar sesama di alam sentosa. Burung adalah satwa dengan populasi terbesar dan menjadi lambang bangsa Indonesia. Rentangan sayap berarti keterbukaan, hasrat untuk terbang jauh, dan melintas batas, sifatnya semesta dikenal oleh semua, tulisan “Indonesia” berwarna hitam yang lebih besar daripada “Wonderful” mengedepankan dan memperkuat Indonesia diantara persaingan pariwisata Internasional.

Pembaharuan dilakukan pada logo wonderful Indonesia yang menekankan gaya yang luwes melalui gambar tanpa sudut yang bermakna keseimbangan, keselarasan manusia dibumi dan sekaligus menggambarkan pariwisata yang berkelanjutan. Lambang garuda tetap dipertahankan sebagai dasar negara Indonesia dengan lima warna yang merupakan bulu dan warna pada bulu ini memiliki makna, warna biru yang berarti kesemestaan, warna hijau berarti kreatifitas dan ramah pada alam, warna jingga melambangkan inovasi dan semangat pembaharuan, warna ungu melambangkan simbol daya imajinasi dan keimanan, warna magenta merupakan simbol keseimbangan akal sehat dan sifat praktis.

BUDAYA SEBAGAI SOFT POWER DIPLOMASI INDONESIA

Indonesia merupakan negara yang memiliki keanekaragaman budaya yang pada setiap daerah memiliki ciri khas masing-masing. Sejak berabad-abad yang lalu kebudayaan Indonesia sudah terbentuk dengan masyarakat yang sangat majemuk yang terdiri dari 600 suku bangsa dan memiliki budaya yang beragam. Kebudayaan menjadi media diplomasi yang efektif karena memiliki unsur-unsur universal (cultural universals), dalam unsur-unsurnya terdapat dalam semua kebudayaan bangsa-bangsa di dunia. Koentjaraningrat membagi kebudayaan ke dalam 7 unsur-unsur universal yang terdapat pada semua bangsa yaitu: sistem religi dan upacara, sistem dan organisasi kemasyarakatan, sistem pengetahuan, bahasa, kesenian, sistem pencaharian hidup,sistem teknologi dan peralatan.

Pada tahun 1990-an Indonesia mulai menggelar pameran kebudayaan di Amerika Serikat. Pameran ini memperlihatkan kepada masyarakat dunia berbagai bentuk dan produk kreatif seniman Indonesia, pameran ini dinilai sukses dan mendapat respons yang positif dari publik AS. Indonesia. Pameran kebudayaan pada taraf internasional dimaksudkan untuk memperkenalkan kekayaan budaya yang dimiliki Indonesia. Budaya Indonesia sangat diapresiasi oleh masyarakat dunia, dengan cara belajar budaya Indonesia mulai dari lagu, tarian, kerajinan, dan lain-lain. Keragaman budaya  menjadi sebuah kekuatan penting dalam menjaga keutuhan bangsa Indonesia di tengah berbagai tantangan yang saat ini sedang dihadapi. Selain itu,  keanekaragaman budaya yang dimiliki Indonesia menjadi suatu kekuatan untuk bangsa Indonesia dalam berdiplomasi antar bangsa, bahkan diplomasi budaya dapat menjembatani konflik antar bangsa.

Soft Power Diplomacy adalah penyelenggaraan hubungan Indonesia dengan negara-negara dan entitas internasional lain dengan menggunakan kemampuan untuk menarik perhatian dan bekerja sama, mengubah dan mempengaruhi opini publik dan sosial melalui berbagai saluran. Indonesia untuk menjembatani perbedaan dunia saat ini akan selalu memainkan Soft Power Diplomacy. Dalam pembukaan pagelaran Indonesia Channel 2016, Menteri Luar Negeri RI Retno L.P. Marsudi  menyampaikan “Dengan adanya berbagai konflik yang terjadi tentunya memerlukan banyak sekali jembatan, dan bukan hanya satu atau dua jembatan untuk menghubungkan antara budaya yang berbeda, agama yang berbeda, dan kepentingan yang berbeda, dan inilah bagian yang ingin dimainkan oleh Indonesia untuk membangun berjuta jembatan agar dunia menjadi damai dan stabil melalui seni dan budaya.”

Budaya menjadi alat diplomasi bagi Indonesia untuk menjembatani perbedaan dunia saat ini. Budaya merupakan alat diplomasi yang dapat mempersatukan masyarakat suatu negara dengan masyarakat negara-negara lain, karena budaya dalam suatu bangsa  sangat melekat pada semua kalangan masyarakat, dan budaya sangat melekat  dengan kehidupan sehari-hari sehingga budaya menjadi sangat pengaruh dalam kehidupan masyarakat dalam bernegara. Sehingga kekuatan budaya menjadi alat yang penting yang bisa digunakan untuk menjembatani konflik yang ada antara negara satu dengan negara yang lain.

Untuk itu, Indonesia dengan kekayaan keanekaragaman budaya yang dimiliki dari Sabang sampai Merauke menggunakan kekuatan budaya negara sendiri untuk melakukan Soft Power Diplomacy untuk menjembatani perbedaan dan konflik yang terjadi pada dunia saat ini, salah satunya dengan memberikan Beasiswa Seni Dan Budaya Indonesia (BSBI) yang dimulai dari tahun 2003. Beasiswa ini memberikan kesempatan untuk para anak-anak dan para kaum muda dari negara-negara Asia, Pasifik Eropa dan Amerika untuk belajar kebudayaan Indonesia seperti memainkan musik gamelan, menari, membuat anyaman, melukis, membantik dan lain sebagainya.

Pentingnya People to People Contact dengan Beasiswa Seni Budaya Indonesia (BSBI)

Sejak tahun 2003 pemerintah Indonesia melalui Kementrian Luar Negeri RI telah menyelenggarakan program Beasiswa Seni dan Budaya Indonesia (BSBI) untuk memberikan kesempatan bagi generasi muda dari berbagai negara untuk mempelajari kebudayaan Indonesia. Program Beasiswa Seni Budaya Indonesia (BSBI) sebagai salah bentuk dalam pelaksanaan soft diplomacy Indonesia. Dalam program BSBI ini para peserta akan langsung berinteraksi secara langsung dengan masyarakat dan komunitas yang terlibat dalam program beasiswa ini.  People to people contact  memberikan kesempatan kepada para penerima beasiswa dan masyarakat Indonesia untuk menjalin hubungan baik dalam hal memperkenalkan dan mengajar kebudayaan Indonesia. Sebagai kontribusinya, para penerima beasiswa dapat memperkenalkan dan mengajarkan kebudayaan Indonesia kepada masyarakat di negaranya masing-masing.

Program BSBI merupakan komitmen Indonesia dalam meningkatkan kerjasama dalam bidang sosial budaya antar negara-negara di dunia terutama negara yang mengirimkan delegesinya dalam program tersebut. Program BSBI ini bertujuan menciptakan pemahaman yang lebih baik tentang keberagaman Indonesia di kalangan generasi muda internasional. Para penerima beasiswa BSBI dapat menjadi friends of Indonesia yang dapat membantu promosi Indonesia di negara asal. Program BSBI ini juga mengoptimalkan people to people contact melalui pendekatan seni dan budaya  langkah ini diambil karena kebudayaan merupakan alat diplomasi yang  bebas dari kepentingan politik dan ekonomi. Dampak yang signifikan dari BSBI adalah memajukan sikap saling pengertian dan pengembangan people to people contact. Dengan unsur-unsur seni dan budaya diharapkan untuk kedepannya akan menghasilkan dampak yang positif dalam mengisi dan mengembangkan kerjasama di berbagai bidang lainnya.

Program BSBI memiliki kurikulum utama yaitu Bahasa Indonesia, Seni Budaya dan agama, kegiatan sosial, serta kearifan lokal dengan rentang waktu tiga bulan. Sejak tahun 2013 program BSBI menghasilkan 658 lulusan dari 60 negara. Kegiatan ini bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan para generasi muda negara-negara sahabat dengan berbagai ragam identitas dan kepribadian bangsa Indonesia yang khas seperti sikap menghargao keberagaman/kebhinekaaan, kekeluargaan, kesatuan, toleransi, dan keterbukaan. Di tahun 2016 para peserta BSBI berasal dari negara anggota ASEAN, ASEAN+3, SwPD dan PIF serta dari Azerbaijan, Belanda, Republik Ceko, Hungaria, India, India, Italia, Jerman, Moldova, Perancis, Polandia, Romania, Slovenia, Slowakia, Spanyol, Suriname, Turki, Serbia, Bulgaria, Kroasia, Denmark, Norwegia, Kazakhstan, Maroko, Timor Leste, Thailand, Tunis,  Yunani, Moldova, dan Romania.

Di tahun 2016 Indonesia menggelar Pagelaran Indonesia Channel yang diselenggarakan di gedung Teater Besar Taman Ismail Marzuki Jakarta dengan tema “ Thousand Island Made in Heaven” yang dipandu oleh sepasang pembawa acara/MC asal Serbia dan Belanda. Keduanya merupakan alumni BSBI 2015. Dalam acara tersebut, kedua MC  menggunakan kostum Abang-None Jakarta dengan bahasa Indonesia dan juga bahasa Betawi. Dalam pagelaran Indonesia Channel 2016 terdapat synopsis yang mengawali pangelaran yaitu “ Samudera gerbang terbuka, alun ombak bergemuruh, sambung-menyambung, susul-menyusul ke pantai permai. Mereka adalah anak-anak yang terpanggil, berarak-arak menggapai pesisir, menuju Ibu yang menunggu dengan gumam rindu tak berkesudahan. Kini telah jadi lingkaran cinta. Anak-anakmu dari Mainang Kaba, Pulau Dewata, Bumi Pinisi, Tanah Garam dan Nusa Padi memelukmu. Terimalah, Indonesia.

Kemudian, disusul dengan persembahan musik dan lagu ‘lir-ilir’ dari Jawa Tengah dan diteruskan dengan musik dan lagu dari Minang, Bali, Madura dan Makassar, diteruskan dengan penampilan tari Bali kemudian celoteh dan canda dari trio punakawan dan diteruskan tarian dari Makassar yang menggambarkan kehidupan nelayan dan tari dari Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur dan Minangkabau yang menggambarkan kehidupan para petani dan pergaulan masyarakat,. Dalam pagelaran Indonesia Channel 2016 ini dibawakan oleh para pemuda dari berbagai negara untuk menampilkan berbagai ragam kekayaan seni budaya Indonesia untuk menampilkan pertunjukkan kolosal seni budaya yang spektakuler

Dengan program BSBI  dapat mempererat hubungan dengan negara-negara sahabat melalui people to people contact  dengan memanfaatkan keberagaman seni budaya bangsa dan menjadi salah satu aset soft power diplomacy Indonesia. Program BSBI membawa nama Indonesia untuk lebih dikenal oleh masyarakat internasional, bahwa Indonesia adalah bangsa yang memiliki banyak keberagaman seni, budaya, sejarah dan kekhasan kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia.

TAWAKKUL KARMAN DALAM DUNIA POLITIK YAMAN

Tawakkul Karman seorang perempuan Yaman, yang bergabung dalam Partai Al Ishlah. Karman menjadi perempuan pertama yang melepaskan diri dari kungkungan budaya patriarkhi di Yaman. Kekuatan dan kemampuannya untuk terlibat aktif dalam politik dibuktikan dengan aksinya untuk turun ke jalan. Karman berani melakukan demonstrasi untuk membebaskan perempuan dari dominasi laki-laki. Kaum ekstrimis Islam Yaman membenci gerakan yang dipelopori oleh Tawakkul Karman. Tawakkul Karman dianggap mencoba untuk mendorong kaum perempuan menjauh dari rumah.

Partai Al Ishlah

Partai Al Ishlah adalah partai Islam Yaman yang didirikan pada tahun 1990 oleh Abdullah ibn Husain al-Ahmar, Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, Abdul Majeed al-Zindani, Mohammed al Yadumi dan Yahya Rassam. Partai Ishlah mampu mengakomodasi protes terhadap Ali Abdullah Saleh. Partai ini  rela membeli makanan serta persediaan medis untuk ribuan pengunjuk rasa yang berkemah di Lapangan Perubahan. Salah satu pemimpin Partai Al Ishlah yaitu Syaikh Abdul Majid Az Zndan dianggap Amerika Serikat sebagai teroris karena menjadi penasihat Usamah bin Ladin. Partai Ishlah merupakan manifestasi Ikhwanul Muslimin di Yaman. Partai Al Ishlah merupakan partai yang memiliki ideologi yang berseberangan dengan militer yang membawa nilai Islam di Yaman.

Tawakkul Karman Dalam Partai Al Ishlah

Tawakkul Karman mengiginkan agar Partai Al-Islah menjadi partai terbaik di Yaman yang mendukung keanggotaan perempuan. Melalui Partai Al-Ishlah Tawakkul Karman ingin mengangkat derajat perempuan Yaman yang secara kesukuan dan chauvinisme masih diperintah oleh kaum laki-laki, memberantas buta huruf di kalangan perempuan yang masih menjadi masalah dan gizi buruk karena dalam keluarga cenderung mengistimewakan anak laki-laki. Organisasi yang dipimpin Tawakkul Karman menentang adat tradisional yaitu dengan mencoba menghentikan pernikahan anak, membuka kelas keaksaraan untuk anak perempuan serta mendorong perempuan untuk menuntut hak-haknya dalam keluarga.

The Women’s Struggle in Yemen

Yemen’s Domestic Conditions

Since 1978 Yemen has been led by Ali Abdullah Saleh in a dictatorial government. Ali Abdullah Saleh has led Yemen for more than 30 years. At that time it was very difficult for women to enter parliamentary and government seats. In the era of Ali Abdullah Saleh’s leadership, there were two things that were difficult to obtain, namely freedom of opinion and expression as well as democratic rights. In Yemen chauvinism (tribal nationalism) is still very thick coupled with primordial elements of non-Salafi clerics (outside the Al-Islah Political Party). This is similar to the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS) which exists in Indonesia. The party consists of Shi’a-Zaidi and Sunni-Sufi clerics who are very influential.

In addition, there are still many illiterates among women. Other unfavorable social conditions are many women who suffer from malnutrition due to family traditions that tend to privilege boys, early marriage is not uncommon in Yemen, early marriage is conducted so as not to provide opportunities for women to get higher education. Traditions like this continue to occur during the leadership of Ali Abdullah Saleh for more than 30 years.

Arab Spring in Yemen (2007-2011)

A wave of democratization swept across the Middle East region which undermined the position of each previous form of government which was considered democratic. One of the countries experiencing a wave of democratization is Yemen. The demands of the people of Yemen on government are freedom, equality, the separation of powers and the opening of broad participation to the community. In general these demands constitute an effort to uphold democratization for the people of Yemen.

Yemenis protest that is rooted in economic problems. More than 46 percent of Yemenis are below the poverty line and many unemployment problems in society. The Yemeni per capita income is only 2 dollars per day with 43 percent of the population earning per day below that number. The price of basic necessities for the community is also increasingly expensive. In the list of Human Development Index of the Arab region, Yemen is ranked 4th from the bottom after Sudan, Djibouti and Mauritania. In addition, the Corruption Perception Index ranks 146th and 13th in the Failed Country Index.

In mid-January 2011, the people of Yemen held a large-scale demonstration against the ruling Yemeni government. The demonstration is a form of public dissatisfaction with the Ali Abdullah Saleh regime. The dissatisfaction of the people of Yemen against the ruling government is caused by several factors, namely the economy and the saturation of the people over the authoritarian rule of President Ali Abdullah Saleh which has been running for more than 30 years. The main objective in the demonstration is to undermine the regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh to create a better government for the people.

The role of the Civil Society or civil society becomes a force to change the political system. Civil society is the main actor whose role is to speak out in overthrowing authoritarian regimes and promoting democracy in society. In the people power carried out by civil society, many are also participated by women.

The Role of Women in Democratization Efforts

The wave of democracy that occurred in 2011 hit countries in the Middle East, one of which is Yemen. The public held a demonstration demanding political change in the domestic political system. The women participated in the demonstration, allegedly by bad propaganda. The propaganda sometimes makes women reluctant to participate in demonstrations or protests against authoritarian governments. The reality is precisely women who appear proactive in the Islamic revival movement in the Middle East.

The Yemeni revolution which has taken place actively can provide a picture of the high role of women. Women’s participation in protests against authoritarian rule and the movement to overthrow the authoritarian regime of Ali Abdullah Saleh, who has been in power for more than 30 years. In the protest, thousands of women were fighting against Yemen’s rulers. These women became pioneers in the mass protest movement at the time. One of the roles of women in democratization efforts in Yemen is Tawakkul Karman.

In a parliament where there is only one woman out of 301 members, not yet agreed to a minimum age of marriage. The parliamentary disapproval was due to the fact that in 2008 there was an early marriage, Nujood Ali. A woman in parliament has not yet agreed to a minimum age of marriage to prevent the recurrence of early marriage. In Yemen the level of illiteracy among women reaches 67 percent. In addition, women are also the first victims of food shortages and access to health services is very difficult. In the political field, there are only two female ministers in Yemen. Many obstacles faced by women to advance in government and parliament.

Who is Tawakkul Karman?

Tawakul Karman is a Yemeni woman who was the main pioneer in the demonstration. In an interview conducted by radio reporter Nederland Wereldomroep, Karman said the demonstration was carried out by every woman to demand reforms. In 2010 in an interview conducted by Al-Jazeera, Karman conveyed the detention of journalists. The detention marks the high level of violence in Yemen. Tawakkul Karman continued to protest and demand change.

Tawakkul Karman is a woman who works as a journalist and human rights activist. Karman is also a wife with three children. Karman continued to call for democratization in his authoritarian country and for his male-dominated politics. Karman did not hesitate to fight for freedom of opinion and oppose the authoritarian President Ali Abdullah Saleh. In his struggle for his country and women, Karman won the Nobel Peace Prize.

Tawakkul Karman said that women are the foundation of a nation. A dignified nation certainly appreciates the women who contributed greatly in producing the next generation of the nation that will bring great change to a country. That is the reason for Tawakkul Karman to fight to protect human rights for women in Yemen. In his struggle to call for freedom and democracy, Karman encountered a lot of rejection. Karman also had the idea to form a radio station and newspaper as a tool of struggle which was later rejected by the Yemen Ministry of Information from 2007-2010.

For Tawakkul Karman in the Spring Revolution, there are four stages that must be passed. The four stages are: subverting the dictator and his family, subverting the security forces and the military and its nepotism network, establishing traditional institutions, and establishing a modern democratic and civil state. In a Time note, Karman has been actively demonstrating since 2007 through his actions every Tuesday outside the Parliament Building.

In 2005, Tawakkul Karman founded Women Journalist Without Chanins (WJWC). During demonstrations in Yemen, Karman often reports the latest situation from the field near Sana‘a University to the television network so that it can be watched by the entire world. Karman founded WJWC along with seven other Yemeni women journalists, with the aim of fighting for freedom of expression and opinion, as well as democratic rights. Previously, the group demanded the Government of Yemen to free Short Message Services (SMS), which are tightly controlled through the Act. In addition, the women journalists also demanded that the government free its citizens to build media through the internet.

Karman was arrested and jailed by the Ali Abdullah Saleh regime, then finally released because supporters of Tawakkul Karman staged a demonstration. Efforts to free Karman were also marked by large-scale demonstrations. On August 17, 2011 Karman was taken back by the apparatuses. Efforts to make a better change for Yemen made Karman a woman known as Yemen’s “Revolutionary Mother”.

JULIA GILLARD: THE SYMBOL OF THE WARM WOMEN LEADER

Profile of Julia Gillard

Born Julia Eileen Gillard, born on September 29, 1961 in Barry, Wales, England. Julia Gillard is a politician from Australia who served as leader of the Australia Labor Party (ALP) in 2010-2013 and as prime minister of Australia in 2010-2013. Julia Gillard was the first woman to successfully hold the position of prime minister of Australia. His family joined the post-World War II emigration wave, from England to Australia in 1966. Julia Gillard studied at the University of Adelaide and was active in student organizations.

In 1983 Julia Gillard moved to Melbourne and served as President of the Australian Student Association and continued her studies at the University of Melbourne. Julia Gillard obtained a degree in law and art from the University of Melbourne in 1986. The following year Gillart joined private law practice. In 1990 Julia Gillard was made a partner specializing in industrial law.

Political Career Julia Gillard

Julia Gillard began her political career with the Victoria Australia Labor Party (ALP Victoria) in the late 1970s. Beginning in the mid-1980s Julia Gillard continued to advance through the ALP ranks. From 1985-1989 Gillard served as Carlton’s party branch president and from 1993 to 1997 became a member of the ALP administrative committee in Victoria. In 1996 to 1998 Julia Gillard was appointed as chief of staff for ALP leader Victoria John Brumby. After that, Julia Gillard was elected to serve in Lalor, an industrial district west of Melbourne, on the Federal House of Representatives.

After the ALP lost the federal election in 2001, Julia Gillard was appointed to the front bench and given a portfolio for population and immigration. Julia Gillard developed an ALP policy on refugees and asylum seekers, who deftly dealt with issues that harmed the party in the 2001 elections and became minister for reconciliation and customary affairs in 2003, which subsequently took over the health portfolio in the same year. Julia Gillard easily won re-election in 2004 and two years later the party held a meeting to elect its representative to become the new ALP leader, Kevin Rudd.

Public dissatisfaction with Liberal Party Prime Minister John Howard led to an extraordinary ALP victory in the 2007 federal election and Julia Gillard became deputy Prime Minister Kevin Rudd. In addition, Julia Gillard received a portfolio for the minister of work and workplace relations, education and social inclusion. As minister of labor and workplaces, Julia Girllard was instrumental in withdrawing the Law which restricted the power of trade unions under the Howard government.

Campaign to Win Julia Gillard

Julia Gillard who is a woman is seen as carrying gender issues because of her womanhood. Indirectly, gender issues brought by Julia Gillard became the focus of mass media and Australians. Julia Gillard advanced in the Prime Minister’s election in August 2010. Gender issues are seen as Julia Gillard’s campaign strategy related to women. Voters judge women candidates on the grounds that they have sociological factors. In addition, Julia Gillard is seen as more feminine and even looks more expressive, has warmth and affection.

In Australian politics, campaigns through the mass media are very important. This is because the mass media as a political mouthpiece in Australia. The Labor Party used mass media as an attempt to campaign early in Julia Gillard’s election. The female PM succeeded in directing gender issues in Australian public opinion. In a large gender gap, the Labor Party leads 58-42 percent of the votes among women, but the votes are 50-50 tied to male voters.

Also in the campaign strategy Julia Gillard gave promises. These promises as a campaign program include: (1) encouraging participation in work figures for women, (2) helping women refugees, (3) helping women to be active in politics through the Emily’s List, (4) motivating women to be active in the program Childcare is an effort to overcome asylum seekers, especially immigrant children. The children of immigrants are strived to get proper shelter so they can live a normal life.

In the 2010 Australian elections it was an advantage for Julia Gillard of the Labor Party because Tony Abbot of the Coalition Party candidate gave his promise in terms of abortion. This has implications for the tendency of women voters not to give their choices. Tony Abbot’s abortion policy had a positive impact on raising voices for Julia Gillard because the campaign strategy carried out was very supportive of women and children to get a better life. This success was realized in the inauguration of Julia Gillar on 24 June 2010 as the first female Prime Minister in Australia.

FEMINISM ISSUES IN LABOR PARTIES

In Australia the developing feminism movement is Liberal feminism. In the theory of Liberal Feminism has the argument that every human being, male and female are created balanced, harmonious and should not occur oppression. In this flow strives for women to be given a public role to work outside the home. If women are given a role in the public sphere, then there is no more dominant gender.

Feminism in Australian politics is marked by an amendment to the Commonwealth Act / Commonwealth Electoral System law in 1902, the right to vote and the right to vote was granted especially to white women. With the ministry that handles women’s issues. The Labor Party is one of the parties in its policy to provide quotas to represent women to enter the Australian political sphere. In the quota policy adopted by the Labor Party is as much as 40%. The Labor Party to help campaign funds for female candidates, established an institution since 1996 by women who were former members of the Australian Labor Party parliament, with the existence of this institution it is hoped that female candidates in this organization could represent women’s interests in the Australian Labor Party.

The Labor Party is a party that has never formed a coalition with any party and the political wing of the trade unions spread across Australia. From its history the Labor Party was formed because of a mass strike by workers who experienced three major divisions namely in 1916 due to military service, in 1929 with the premiers plan policy and in 1955 regarding the communist problem. The Labor Party experienced a glorious period in the Curtin era which then continued with the leadership of Ben Chiefly (1945) and in 1983-1992 during the leadership of Bob Hawke.

The Commonwealth Electoral System amendment in 1902 had a major impact on women’s representation in politics in Australia. The first issue of feminism in the Labor Party was marked by the election of Dorothy Tangney and Dame Eni Lynos who were appointed as members of the Australian national parliament in 1943. Furthermore, the Labor Party followed up on women’s representation using a quota strategy decided at the 1981. through national conference. Labor Party had a commitment to equality between men and women which is the goal of the Labor Party for men and women has the same number at all levels in organizations and public office positions. So that the Labor Party to achieve equality, adopted a comprehensive model of affirmative action with the number 40:40:20. The minimum applicable requirement is that 40% of relevant positions must be based on gender (representation of women).

In 2004 the Labor Party experienced an increase in women’s representation. Women’s representation in the Australian parliament has reached 24.7% in the House of Representative and 35.5% in the Senate. Equality of men and women from the commitment of the Labor Party which was then implemented as a strategy to win the election, has started from the Whitlam Era to the Kevin Era. The era of Kevin Rudd, the Labor Party to show its seriousness in terms of equality contained in the Labor Party platform in 2009, namely the Labor Party Platform chapter 11 Number 35-37 about the New ways of governing for a stronger democracy. The platform ensures equality for women. In addition, the chapter 11 platform number 35-37 is used to strengthen democracy in the Labor Party. The contents of the platform chapter 11 Number 35-37 are:

a. Number 35, the Labor Party is committed to promoting equality between men and women in the decision making process.

b. Number 36, the Labor Party is committed to promoting and supporting women’s leadership in the Australian parliament and at government and private levels throughout Australia.

c. Number 37, the Labor Party will work to ensure the same place for women in the world through:

  1. Active role in international forums to promote women’s rights including conventions in the scope of UN work, namely the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CeDAW) (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women)
  2. Ensure the establishment of adequate sex discrimination laws to protect women, fight discrimination on the basis of sex and increase family responsibilities.
  3. Support women’s representative organizations to participate in policy development.
  4. Implement gender policies as suggestions and analysis for the development of government policies.
  5. Support and promote women leaders in all aspects of Australian society through various education systems and policies.
  6. Support greater women’s representation in the Australian parliament.
  7. Increase motivation to be more sensitive and responsive to specific problems faced by native Australian women, women from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, women with disabilities, rural women and young women and ensure that government policies and programs are funded, accessible and appropriate with their needs.

 The Labor Party formed a special body that handles women, formed from a national women’s network or called The National Labor Women’s Network (NLWN) and Emily’s List. With the existence of this institution it is hoped that women’s interests can be represented and women can get positions in the Australian government.

EMILY’S LIST

What is Emily’s List?

Emily’s List is one of the institutions established by the Australian Labor Party to support women appearing in politics in Australia. On November 26, 1994, the feminist forum held at Sydney Town Hall by Joan Kirner was a member of the ALP National Executive introducing the Australian version of the US Emily List. In 1994, the Labor Party Conference made a 35% rule on women’s representation as a form of affirmative action in all elections, in 2002. 

The name Emily’s List comes from the United States which means equivalent and is an abbreviation of “Early Money Like a Yeast” from the political saying, “early money that functions like yeast, because it helps to increase the dough”. This initial campaign money is often the most important support if a woman can run in elections, allow her to produce leaflets, send direct emails with voters and launch websites.

In 1996 Emily’s List in Australia with the aim of achieving 45% female membership in both the HoR and the Senate. The Emily’s List in Australia was launched at the Houses of Parliament in Canberra on 11 November 1996, estimated to be about 21 years after the Whitlam era PM. In the early days, Australia’s Emily List only acted as a watchdog for the implementation of the Affirmative Action Rules in the Labor Party, ensuring the party reached the 35% female target in 2002. Emily’s List also promoted changes to the rules for 50/50. In 1997-1998, the Emily’s List Australia supported the first candidates in the Northern Territory, South Australia and West Australia elections. Eight women were supported and they were all elected.

The beginning of Emily’s List stems from the activity of a woman from the labor and campaigner community, Leonie Morgan AM. Morgan sees Emily’s List as an organization founded in the US in 1985 to fund Democratic women’s campaigns and advocates for a similar network to support women candidates progressively. Morgan joined women like Kay Setches, Joan Kirner AC and Candy Broad to build support for ideas in Victoria first and then nationally. This happened from 1992 until the launch of Emily’s List in 1996.

These women realized that establishing an Emily’s List would not increase the number of women in parliament if without accompanied by changes to the ALP regulations to perpetuate affirmative action. After the campaign, which also involved, Carmen Lawrence, AC Julia Gillard, Helen Creed, Jenny Beacham, Judy Spence, Meredith Burgmann, Jan Burnswoods, Carolyn Acar, Anne Levy AO, Molly Robson, Sue Mackay and Fran Bladel, ALP passed the rules of affirmative action. first in 1994. This required women to be elected first in 35% of the seats that could be won in all elections in 2002. Women workers realized that more needed to be done to bring about cultural change and the Emily’s List was a political vehicle to show women’s participation.

Emily’s list has the values that First Choice is that women must: First, have control over their own bodies and choices in life. Second, reproductive freedom authorizes women and men to choose when and how to begin an important journey towards parental roles, without fear of discrimination, coercion or violence. Third, Equal Pay, which is the same wage, the community needs to increase the value it gives to women’s work, both in the paid workforce and at home and the long-held perception of the inferiority of “women’s work”, especially in providing care for vulnerable people in societies such as children, young people, people with disabilities and the elderly and differences in the nature and manner of women working, including rest periods to care for, should not lead to much lower wages or retirees for women. Fourth, Childcare, namely the balance of work life is very important for women, men and families, so that women and men can achieve professional and personal fulfillment. Raise awareness that families need affordable, quality and flexible childcare. Fifth, Equity is the right of every woman to enjoy equality before the law, regardless of sexual orientation and gender identity. Equality is a fundamental human right that everyone must enjoy. Fifth, Diversity, namely democracy is enhanced through the diversity of people who participate in it, more and more women in parliament, company councils and courts. This leads to greater diversity of views and hence better public policy outcomes, women are a diverse group and considering the needs of all types of women is very important.

Among the progressive women who are able to control this change are Julia Gillard, Deputy Prime Minister, former Premiers Joan Kirner and Carmen Lawrence along with Helen Creed, Candy Broad MP, Setches Kay, Leonie Morgan, Judy Spence, Meredith Burgmann Jan Burnswoods, Pickles Carolyn, Sue Mackay and Fran Bladel. There are important things for candidates funded by the Emily’s List: “A candidate for Emily’s List member must be able to satisfy and must be” feminist “in the best sense of the word. The prospective member must believe absolutely in the importance of equality, freedom, opportunity between man and woman”. In the Emily’s List organizational structure run by a National Committee there are members of parliament, branch members and women’s unions. Emily’s List is a partisan organization, because the formal structure is the Labor Party so this party has control over the Emily’s List.

The success of Emily’s List

In 2004 Australia’s Emily List had raised more than $ 500,000 and helped elect 123 of 148 Labor women to Parliament throughout the country. The Emily’s List has helped 139 women into Australian parliaments throughout the country at both the Federal and State / Territory levels. This includes:

o The election of the first woman Deputy Prime Minister, Julia Gillard (2007-2010).

o The election of the first female Premier, Anna Bligh, in Queensland, south of Brisbane (2007-2012).

o The election of Carol Martin, Kimberley Member in Western Australia, to become the first Aboriginal woman elected to the Australian Parliament (2001)

Emily’s List as a forum for Australian women to participate in politics, helps women to be elected as officials in the government and to be legislative.

Halal Tourism in Indonesia

Indonesia has a diversity of cultures and natural resources that can be managed and promoted as attractions through tourism. Cultural values in Indonesia can be enjoyed by tourists when they visit and facilitate the process of communication between people. In recent years tourism has become an important activity in improving relations between countries with the large number of tourists visiting Indonesia. This will provide important effects and contributions to improving the country’s image, bilateral relations, and improving the nation’s economy. Tourism today is part of the lifestyle and to get to know the nature and culture of other nations. With the cultural values and local wisdom possessed by Indonesia shows the strength that Indonesia is a multicultural country with the strength that Indonesia has in the field of tourism can achieve global competitiveness.

In 2002 and 2003 Indonesia experienced acts of terror committed by terrorists. This tarnished Indonesia’s image in the international eyes. Some countries issue travel bans, travel warnings and travel advisories to their citizens for a while not visiting Indonesia. The ban had a major impact on the tourism sector, so the Indonesian government conducted diplomacy towards the international community through tourism campaigns. The aim of the tourism campaign is to rebuild Indonesia’s declining tourism image. One of the steps taken by the Indonesian government is public diplomacy through the Visit Indonesia Year 2008 and Wonderful Indonesia campaigns. Diplomacy is an Indonesian communication tool for the international public to re-introduce Indonesian tourism to the world as a religious, natural, rich cultural diversity and tourist attraction that will provide a unique experience for tourists.

The development of the world smoldering influence on the concept of tourism. The concept of tourism developed and gave rise to the term sharia tourism which became a trend in the world community. This is in line with the Islamic economy which has become an important part in the current global economy. In the Islamic economic sector there are things that have increased significantly are culinary, Islamic finance, insurance industry, fashion, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, entertainment and tourism sectors that carry the concept of halal. Halal is meant here is the concept of halal and haram in Islam, halal means justified and haram means prohibited.

Is Halal Tourism?

Halal Tourism is a terminology that Indonesia uses for Sharia Tourism. The concept of Shari’a Tourism starts from the concept of pilgrimage tourism. As a country with the largest Muslim community in the world, most of Indonesia’s population lives in accordance with Islamic values so that the concept of halal is very suitable to be applied in tourism in Indonesia. Indonesia has the advantage of being a Muslim-friendly destination by providing travel services and managing tourist destinations by adapting products and services to properly serve Muslim tourists.

The existence of Indonesian Halal Tourism does not eliminate the differences that occur in society related to social structure. This is only to show that the majority of the Indonesian population embraces Islam but does not fade the spirit of Unity in Diversity. So that the values of virtue and the importance of mutual harmony between mosques, churches, temples, temples, temples or other places of worship as well as cultural and spiritual richness that is owned by Indonesia become a strength and attraction in Indonesian Halal Tourism. In addition, Indonesia’s natural and cultural wealth reflects religious values, solidarity and aesthetics in historical heritage.

In the era of globalization, Indonesian culture also continues to develop. The development of culture as an increasingly modern national identity in practice continues to adopt progressive values and openness. Globalization does not necessarily undermine the national culture but instead strengthens the values of Islam and the customs of society or what is known as local wisdom. In October 2015 Indonesia won three awards from 15 categories at the 2015 World Travel Travel Summit and Exhibition held on 19-20 October 2015 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The World Halal Travel Summit and Exhibition is an institution that exclusively represents the halal tourism sector. This award is given for excellence in services, tourism products, and awards for the family-friendly sector.

With the award received by Indonesia, the image of Indonesian Halal Tourism is increasing, making the government through the Ministry of Tourism to form an Indonesian Halal Tourism Development Acceleration Team (TP3H) and targeting Indonesia as the leading halal tourism destination in ASEAN. In 2016 the Ministry of Tourism officially announced the term Halal Tourism Indonesia with the tagline Halal Tourism Indonesia, The Halal Wonders which is a series of active series of efforts and the government’s commitment to improve the image of Indonesia in all levels of the Muslim community in the world. This Halal Tourism Campaign will contribute to supporting Indonesia’s diplomacy to foreign countries so that it can improve Indonesia’s image as a country that is tolerant, harmonious and continues to uphold Islamic culture and values without eliminating the uniqueness and originality of the region.

The Effort of Indonesian Government to Promote Halal Tourism

Indonesia promotes Halal Tourism to Abroad through Public Diplomacy. What is Public Diplomacy? Public Diplomacy is a way to build relations between countries. Values held are mutual understanding within the scope of culture and society, communicating views, correcting misunderstandings and seeking common ground with one another. Public diplomacy seeks to attract attention using television broadcasts, subsidizing cultural exports and conducting cultural exchanges. These activities are carried out to achieve a goal. Here are some of the objectives of public diplomacy put forward by Mark Leonard entitled Public Diplomacy are:

  1. Increase public knowledge about a country.
  2. Increase public appreciation of a country, form positive perceptions, and equalize opinions on a global issue.
  3. Strengthen ties with a country through education, encourage other countries to come to tourist destinations, come to learn, make other countries buy local products and make other people understand the values of the country.
  4. Influence the community to get investment or influence to collaborate.

This public diplomacy is then used to carry out tourism diplomacy. What is Tourism Diplomacy? Tourism diplomacy is one of the new ways to build friendships with other countries without coercion and is carried out with the spread, exchange and understanding of culture through tourism. “Can break the ice or melt the ice” tourism means that tourism can reach the public all over the world with the natural charm and cultural diversity that has potential in a country. The impact of public diplomacy is to form a positive picture of a country.

Currently Indonesia through the Ministry of Tourism makes a brand to continue to campaign for the promotion of Indonesian tourism, namely Halal Tourism Indonesia. The program is expected to have a significant impact in facilitating Indonesia’s diplomacy to reach Muslim countries in the world. The government to introduce Sharia Tourism Indonesia, one of which is by collaborating with the Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) by organizing the Global Halal Forum on the theme of Wonderful Indonesia as Moslem Friendly Destination in October 2013. The activity was attended by more than 25 countries that are members of the Halal Assurance System, Halal Certifer Bodies and World Halal Food Council. Countries that attended the forum included Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, India, Sri Lanka, China, Australia, New Zealand, England, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Canada, France, Spain, Russia, Germany, Poland, Switzerland, the United States, Colombia, and Brazil.

In addition to organizing the Global Halal Forum, on the same occasion the opening of the Indonesia Halal Expo (Indhex) 2013 was held. The exhibition was held to introduce Halal certified products. Indhex takes place from 30 October to 2 November 2013 at JIEXpo Kemayoran Jakarta (Kemenpar, 2013). In 2015 the term Halal Tourism began to be known at a World Halal Tourism Summit (WHTS) event which was held in Abu Dhabi. The Indonesian government then officially announced the Indonesian Halal Tourism in the World Islamic Economic Forum (WIFE) on August 2, 2016 in Jakarta. At that time Indonesia was honored to be the organizer of the event because of its potential as the largest Halal Tourism destination in the world.

In carrying out Halal Tourism activities, the Ministry of Tourism collaborates and directly involves hoteliers and travel agents. The two private institutions participated in participating in the international tourism festival as well as participating in the tourism festival organized by the Ministry of Tourism. In 2016 the Ministry of Tourism released a list of the best Muslim-friendly family-friendly hotels and the best travel tour operators that were selected through the 2016 National Halal Tourism Competition by the P3H Team. This is to convince the global Muslim community about the readiness of Indonesia as a Halal Tourism destination.

The Ministry of Tourism campaign is also carried out through the media by implementing the POSE strategy (paid media, owned media, social media, endorsers). Paid Media: Islamic Finder, Muslim MNC, Republika, Kompas, Mizan, HalalBooking.com, salingsapa.com, Ummi Magazine, Noor Magazine, alifTV, British Muslim, The Muslim Travel Girl, Zhabihah Channel, YouTube, TripAdvisor and Google. Owned Media is one of the official websites of the Ministry of Tourism. There is also a domain address is http://halaltourism.id/. This website is equipped with features that will make it easier for users to access contact information from the Ministry of Tourism, photo and gallery of leading halal tourism destinations in Indonesia as well as information about the top 5 Muslim friendly destinations.

This website also contains information on Sharia hotels (where to stay), restaurants with halal standards (where to eat), and places to shop (where to shop) in halal tourism destinations. Social Media: Instagram (@kemenpar and @indtravel), Facebook (Ministry of Tourism), Twitter (@kemenpar_RI), Garuda Indonesia Cooperation Blog run by Ministry of Tourism staff. Endorser: The Ministry of Tourism appoints several national celebrities to become Halal Tourism Ambassadors, such as Asma Nadia (Novel Researcher), Laudya Cytia Bella (Artist), Dian Pelangi (Fashion Designer), and Dude Harlina and Alyssa Soebandono (Family of Artists). While Tourism Ambassadors internationally are Muslim Traveler Duo Husband and Wife, Humood Al Khudair, Harris J, Elena (Muslim Traveler Girl), and Maher Zayn (Singer). The appointment of the Tourism Ambassador was carried out by the Ministry of Tourism as one of the strategies to attract the public and as representatives of the Ministry of Tourism who will communicate directly with the public to influence them so they want to get to know Halal Tourism destinations in Indonesia.

In 2019 Indonesia ranked first at the international level after 5 years of developing Halal Tourism in Indonesia as a global halal travel destination by the Global Muslim Travel Index (GMTI) announced by CrescentRating – Mastercard. Indonesia is able to show its potential as the world’s best halal travel destination. Indonesia’s halal tourism market growth in 2018 reaches 18%, with the number of Muslim tourists (wislim) visiting foreign priority destinations of Indonesia reaching 2.8 million with foreign exchange reaching more than Rp 40 trillion.

During 2018, Indonesia has achieved 10 National Priority Halal Destinations that refer to GMTI standards, including: Aceh, Riau and Riau Islands, West Sumatra, DKI Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java (Malang Raya), Lombok, and South Sulawesi (Makassar and surrounding areas). This year, the strengthening of halal tourism destinations is done by increasing the participation of 6 Regencies and Cities in the 10 National Priority Halal Destinations, namely Tanjung Pinang City, Pekanbaru City, Bandung City, Bandung Regency, West Bandung Regency and Cianjur Regency. CrescentRating-Mastercard has also announced that the top 5 priority destinations in Indonesia in 2019 will be achieved by Lombok (West Nusa Tenggara) with a score of 70, Aceh with a score of 66, Riau and Riau Islands with a score of 63, DKI Jakarta with a score of 59, and West Sumatra with a score of 59.

This is what the government has been done through public diplomacy and regional development. The Indonesia Government introduces Indonesian Halal Tourism. Diplomacy by the government and the private sector aims to attract foreign countries especially foreign Muslim tourists. The results of the development of Halal Tourism for five years succeeded to carve the achievement of Indonesian Halal Tourist at the international level.

Implementasi Feminisme Liberal Melalui Kebijakan Trust Politic pada Masa Presiden Park Geun Hye

Sejak tahun 2012 Korea Selatan mengadakan pesta demokrasi untuk pemilihan umum, dan hasil dari pemilihan umum dimenangkan oleh Park Geun Hye, dan menjadi sejarah bagi Korea Selatan untuk pertama kalinya dipimpin oleh seorang perempuan untuk menduduki jabatan sebagai presiden. Dalam sejarahnya yakni pada dekade 90-an Korea Selatan mengalami diskriminasi gender yang masih melekat pada masyarakat. Dalam prakteknya negara justru menjadi salah satu pendukung dalam diskriminasi gender. Praktek diskriminasi gender dapat terlihat pada pelaksanaan wajib militer. Untuk para laki-laki akan mendapatkan poin tambahan dalam seleksi penerimaan pegawai negeri, penerimaan karyawan swasta dan sektor industrial di Korea Selatan sementara perempuan tidak mendapatkan sama sekali. Perempuan mengalami kesulitan untuk memasuki lowongan pekerjaan sebagai pegawai negeri. Kondisi tersebut menjadikan Korea Selatan menduduki posisi yang paling rendah dalam hal kesetaraan gender.

Sebelum memasuki dekade 2000-an, Korea Selatan masih mengalami deskriminasi gender yang cukup tinggi muali dari penerimaan upah, kondisi kerja, kualitas kerja dan keamanan kerja, kemiskinan, kekerasan dam ketidakadilan. Situasi seperti itulah yang menjadi alasan bagi Pemerintah Korea Selatan untuk melakukan perubahan. Pemerintah Korea Selatan pada tahun 2001 berhasil membentuk institusi negara yang diberi nama Kementerian Kesetaraan Gender yang pada tahun 2005 diubah menjadi Kementeriaan Kesetaraan Gender dan Keluarga hal ini menjadi keberhasilan bagi perempuan di Korea Selatan. Melalui kementerian ini perempuan Korea Selatan mendapatkan angin seger terkait jenis pekerjaan.

Menguak  Masa Muda Park Geun Hye

Park Geun Hye lahir pada 2 Februari 1952, dari orang tua  Park Chung Hee, Yuk Young-soo. Park Geun Hye menempuh pendidikan di SacredHeart Girl’s High School (1970), Sogang University, Joseph Fourier University, University of Grenoble. Park Geun Hye mendapatkan pendidikan politik langsung dari ayahnya yang bernama Park Chung Hee yang pada tahun 1961 sebagai pemimin pemberontakan dan pada tahun 1963 sampai tahun 1979 mengambil alih jabatan tertinggi di Korea Selatan. Park Geun Hye masa kecilnya menghabiskan di Blue House sebagai anak presiden. Pada tahun 1974 ibunya bernama Yook Young Soo dibunuh, sehingga Park Geun Hye yang merupakan anak pertama secara otomatis dalam pemerintahan Korea Selatan menjadi ibu negara. Di tahun 1976 ayahnya meninggal karena dibunuh oleh tangan kanannya sendiri bernama Kim Jae Kyu.

Kegiatan Politik Park Geun Hye

Park Geun Hye memulai karir politiknya dipartai Saenuri yaitu sebagai anggota legislatif selama 14 tahun dari tahun 1997 sampai 2012. Di tahun 2004 dan 2006 ia menjadi ketua dari partai Saenuri. Di tahun 2007 Park Geun Hye mencalonkan menjadi presiden namun Park Geun Hye kalah dengan Lee Myung Bak dan mencalonkan diri sebagai presiden Korea Selatan pada tahun 2012 dan terpilih menjadi presiden Korea Selatan yang mengalahkan pesaingnya Moon Jae In. Paark dalam aktivitas politiknya mendapatkan pujian publik karena pertama, program dan strategi yang dibuatnya dan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan lapangan pekerjaan, kedua, meningkatkan peran perempuan dalam pemerintahaan, ketiga, menaikkan anggaran Kementeriaan Kesetaraan Gender dan Keluarga (Ministry of Gender Equality and Family) untuk kegiatan-kegiatan yang mendukung perempuan. Kegiatan-kegiatan ini disesuaikan dengan programnya saat kampanye dan membawa dampak positif terhadap peningkatan pada suara yang masuk dalam pemilihan umum.

Kebijakan Responsif Gender Presiden Park Geun Hye

Pada awal kepemimimpinannya sebagai presiden banyak masyarakat Korea Selatan yang mengira bahwa Park Geun Hye tidak menaruh perhatian pada isu-isu perempuan. Seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, kebijakan yang diambil Presiden Park Geun Hye justru responsif gender yaitu pertama, meningkatkan pekerja perempuan (womens labour); kedua, mengimplementasikan layanan publik pada daycare dan childcare untuk membantu orang tua tunggal sekaligus membantu keuangannya. Ketiga, Park Geun Hye juga membuat kebijan khusus untuk pelayanan keluarga yang bercerai atau orang tua yang meninggalkan anaknya, yaitu dengan memberikan tunjangan kepada anak-anak yang tidak diasuh oleh orang tua kandungnya. Keempat, Park Geun Hye juga menaikkan anggaran untuk masing-masing kebijakan di bawah institusi Kementerian Kesetaraan Gender dan Kelurga untuk mendukung kegiatan-kegiatan perempuan.

Saat masa kampanye pemilihan umum, Park Geun Hye memiliki materi yang responsif gender sehingga mampu mendapatkan perhatian masyarakat dan mengalahkan lawannya. Materi kampanye yang diusungnya yaitu mengampanyekan untuk para ibu hamil dan memangkas jam kerja bagi ibu hamil dan penyediaan program nutrisi. Ketika masih menjabat sebagai anggota legislatif Park Geun Hye memasukkan  kebijakan yang menitikberatkan pada perempuan dan anak contohnya seperti mempromosikan tunjangan untuk keperluan orang tua tunggal dan mengadvokasi para perempuan korban kekerasan. Presiden Park juga memberikan peluang kepada para perempuan untuk terlibat dalam organisasi dan institusi pemerintahan. 

Setelah menjabat sebagai presiden, kebijakan yang diusungnya untuk meningkatkan perdamaian di kawasan Semenanjung Korea yang berkonflik adalah Trust-politic Policy. Ini merupakan kebijakan yang menekankan pada soft diplomacy dengan pendektan-pendekaan bersifat persuasif. Pendekatan feminisme menjadi acuan utamanya khususnya dalam menghadapi perempuan dan anak. Kebijakan Trust-Politic menjadi wujud nyata dalam upayanya mengelola konflik antar dua negara yang bertetangga. Sebagai tindak lanjutnya, Presiden Park juga menyiapkan NGO lokal terkait untuk membantu ibu hamil dan anak-anak di daerah Korea Utara. Dengan demikian Presiden Park menjadi satu-satunya pemimpin perempuan Korea Selatan yang telah menciptakan kebijakan responsif gender dengan pendekatan persuasif, soft diplomacy dan negosiasi guna meningkatkan kepercayaan dari negara “lawan” yakni Korea Utara guna menciptkan perdamaian di Semenanjung Korea.